Sunday, 25 December 2011

Secondary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Young male admitted to casualty for stroke. 
On admission CT 
Follow up CT after a week
Follow up MRI
2 D TOF MR Venogram
Right parietal lobar bleed.
The subependymal venous angioma noted along choroid plexus of right lateral ventricle on follow up CT and T2w images.
Multiple fine T2 flow voids clustured in right temporal lobe adjacent to the hematoma.
Faint dystrophic calcification along the vascular malformation in right temporal region adjacent to the hematoma depicted on CT.
Dilated right side posterior mesencephalic vein, basal vein and vein of Galen noted on MR.
Superior sagittal sinus show absence of normal T2 flow voids. Sinus is not bulky rather smaller in caliber, eccentric dots of T2 flow voids in the region of sinus are partially recanalised channels which show poor flow related signal on 2 D TOF MR Venogram appears to be a chronically thrombosed sinus.


This MRI study shows:
Right parietal lobar bleed - a secondary intra parenchymal hemorrhage.
An associated venous Angioma.
Chronic dural sinus thrombosis. 

There is known association of dural venous sinus thrombosis (CVT)  with conditions like venous angioma and av fistulas. Now it is under debate that whether venous angiomas and fistula secondarily result into CVT as a result of altered blood dynamics or chronic CVT is first to occur resulting in  development of alternate abnormal vascular channels.

An intracerebral hemorrhage account for ~15% of all strokes and is the one of the most disabling forms of stroke.
Divided in to two major types primary and secondary.
A. Primary ICH develops in the absence of any underlying vascular malformation or coagulopathy. Primary intracerebral hemorrhage is more common than secondary. Hypertension and Amyloid angiopathy to 2/3 rd of causes primary haemorrhages. Some time it may be difficult to identify the underlying cause.  Hypertension related bleed are more common in basal ganglia along external capsule the reason appears to be high pressure within the Circle of Willis resulting in smooth cell proliferation followed by smooth muscle cell death. Whereas Amyloid angiopathy affects leptomeningeal and intraparenchymal cortical vessels explains the occurrence of large superficial lobar haemorrhages with amyloid angiopathy.
B. Secondary ICH occure secondary to underlying causes like vascular malformation, sinus thrombosis, hemorrhagic conversion of an ischemic stroke, embolic stroke, coagulopathy, intracranial tumor, hemorrhagic metastasis etc. Arteriovenous malformations, aneurysm account for majority of underlying vascular malformations. Venous Angioma are most the time asymptomatic, noted as an incidental finding and is a rare cause of bleed.

Related posts:
Cavernoma with venous-angioma

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